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The Genetic History of the Last Neanderthals in Europe is being Constructed

            

Researchers have sequenced five Neanderthals genres that lived 47,000 to 39,000 years ago, and some important details about the last Neanderthals that lived in Eurasia emerged.

Researchers have been working on five Neanderthal genomes that lived 47,000 to 39,000 years ago. These late-period Neanderthals are closer relatives than Neanderthals in the Altay Mountains of Neanderthals, who have mated with modern human ancestors and contributed to my DNA. These new genomes are inserted in the Neanderthal population towards the end of the Neanderthal history and present evidence of population turnover as a result of their surging.

Due to the limited number of samples and the difficulty of obtaining endogenous DNA from such old materials, the number of Neanderthals whose nuclear genomes are sequenced is still very limited. Since 2010, the entire genome sequence has been created for 4 Neanderthals in Croatia, Siberia and the Caucasus. This study adds five new Neanderthals genomes to a wider geographical area than previous studies and a later turnaround.

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New methods to get rid of contaminating DNA from microorganisms and contemporary humans were developed by a research group in Leipzig, allowing researchers to sequence five Neanderthals genome from Belgium, France, Croatia and Russia, 39,000 to 47,000 years ago. As a result these individuals represent the last Neanderthals of Europe.

By comparing these new genomes with other Neanderthal genomes, it is estimated that all late Neanderthals left about 150,000 years ago in Siberia's common ancestors, and their genetic similarities are proportional to geographical proximity. Their analysis shows that the flow of high amounts of gene flow towards early modern humans came from one or two populations in which these late Neanderthals were separated about 70,000 years ago.

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comparing populations of the Neanderthals genome in the Caucasus to populations in the Caucasus or throughout Europe during the late Neanderthal history indicate that population turnover has occurred as a result of their additions and surges. This timing coincides with climatic changes known to occur between 60,000 and 24,000 years. That is, the extreme cold times in Northern Europe may have triggered the disappearance of local populations and subsequent resettlement in southern Europe and western Asia.

Having many Neanderthalian genomes allows researchers to recreate the Neanderthal population's history. "We see that the genetic similarity between these Neanderthals is highly related to the geographical location," says Mateja Hajdinjak, lead author of the study. By comparing these genomes with an earlier Neanderthal genome from the Caucasus, we showed that populations migrated towards each other and relocated towards the end of Neanderthal history. "

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The research group compares these Neanderthal genomes with those of modern humans, and all the late Neanderthals resemble Neanderthals in Neanderthals in Siberia, who have mated with modern human ancestors and contributed to the contemporary population through DNA. Four of these Neanderthals do not carry modern human DNA in an interestingly detectable amount, despite the fact that modern humans have already lived in Europe. Svante Pääbo, director of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, says, "The gene flow may have been unidirectional, that is to modern people from the Neanderthals."

Janet Kelso, one of the senior writers in this new study, says, "Our work shows that the genomic sequence generation from a large number of archaic humans is not technically feasible and offers possibilities for studying Neanderthal populations at both temporal and regional intervals."


Science Daily. Nature Asia. March 21, 2018.

Marie Soressi, Sahra Talamo, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Habsburger, Hélène Rougier, Isabelle Crevecoeur, Vagheesh Narasimham, Pontus Skoglund, Steffi Grote, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Stefan Grote, Alexander Hübner, Mateja Hajdinjak, Qiaomei Fu,

Ivan Gušić, Željko Kućan, Pavao Rudan, Liubov V. Golovanova, Vladimir B. Doronichev, Cosimo Posth, Johannes Krause, Petra Korlević, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Montgomery Slatkin, Nick Patterson, David Reich, Kay Prüfer, Matthias Meyer, Pääbo, Janet Kelso. 2018. Reconstructing the genetic history of late Neanderthals. Nature.

            

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