Scientists have developed a chicken embryo that has a burrow similar to dinosaurs instead of beaks.
It is believed that 65 million years ago, an asteroid hit our planet and that the impact of this bustle erased the earthly dinosaur neslin as well as a large number of crocodiles.
However, it is claimed that a group of dinosaurs succeeded in surviving, and that the creatures we identified today as birds came from the line of these dinosaurs.
Scientists who claim that birds evolved from dinosaurs have been on the agenda since the 19th century, when they discovered a fossil belonging to early birds called archaeopterics. It is said to have wings and feathers, but at the same time dinosaurs are very similar. Similar fossils are found in later fossils.
This early bird species, of course, did not resemble modern birds; for instance, instead of the beak, there were noses similar to dinosaur ancestors.
The team started a study to make changes in the molecular processes that resulted in the formation of beaks in chickens to understand how such evolution took place.
The team succeeded in developing a chicken embryo with a nose and a beak similar to those of small, feathered dinosaurs such as Velociraptor, and the study results were published in Evolution .
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The team's goal was to understand how the bird's beak evolved. It is known that the bird that comes at the head of the most important parts of the bird anatomy is vital for the birds to survive. There are more than 10,000 species of birds living in various habitats around the world, many of which have featured bugs that help them survive.
The study's principal authors, Bhart-Anjan Bhullar from Yale University and Arkhat Abzhanov from Harvard University, stated that they were not put in to create a "dino-chicken".
Bhullar says, "When you examine such an important evolutionary transformation, you want to learn the underlying mechanism."
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Bhullar notes that the beak is part of the most comprehensive and most diverse bird skeleton.
Bhullar, "In spite of this diversity ranging from flamingos to pelicans, very few studies have been conducted on the concept of what exactly the gagan is. So I wanted to know what the gagan is in skeletal and functional terms, and when the transformation from a normal vertebrate nose to this extremely unique structure in birds would take place. "
For this purpose, the team made changes in the gene expression process in embryos of chickens and a few other birds. In this direction, mouse, emu, crocodile, lizard and turtle embryos representing a majority of the basic animal groups were studied.
As a result of the investigations, it was discovered that birds had a unique set of genes associated with facial development. It was stated that this gene cluster was not found in crappy animals
When the team neutralized these genes, the beak structure and the palate bone returned to their original state before they evolved.
Bhullar and his colleagues isolated the proteins that would provide beak development to accomplish this genetic adjustment. These isolated proteins were then repressed using small balls coated with an inhibitor substance.
When the skeletons of the embryos undergoing genetic alteration began to develop in the egg, it was seen that these animals had short, round bone structures instead of long, fused beak like the bird skeletons.
Bhullar says about the process, "We are actually altering gene expression by suppressing this early protein."
According to Michael Benton of the University of Bristol, the study emphasizes that using a different gene sequence, the bugs grow very differently from the base. This proves that the gagan is not a different nose shape but a real adaptation.
Benton says that the transition from buried to gag in the evolution of birds took place 40 to 50 million years after Archeopteryx.
BBC. May 13, 2015.