12. What killed the Saladin Ayyubi who united the Muslim world in the first century, took Jerusalem back from the Christians, and fired the Third Crusade? Until today, this event kept its mystery. However, a doctor who examined the writings about Saladin Ayyubi's medical symptoms long ago 800 years ago may determine from which disease the powerful sultan died.
Stephen Gluckman, a professor of medicine at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, says that the disease is typhoid in his speech at the 25th annual Historical Clinicopathology Conference.
Experts at the conference annually identify a historical figurine disease and include Lenin, Darwin, Eleanor Roosevelt and Lincoln as past diagnosticists.
Gluckman warns that if Saladin Ayyubi is thought to have lived before the modern diagnostic tools, the exact recognition probably will not be known. But typhoid fever (a disease in which people are caught when they consume food or water that contains the Salmonella typhi bacteria) seems to fit the writings.
Saladin Ayyubi was an iconic figure who played an important role in Europe and Middle East history.
Tom Asbridge, a professor of medieval history at Queen Mary University, says, "It was certainly one of the most important Muslim leaders in the Middle Ages during the Crusades."
Asbridge, speaking to the same conference, says, "Ancient Egyptian prime minister Jamal Abdul Nasser (1918-1970) was obsessed with Saladin Ayyubi, like Saddam Hussein (1937-2006) who put himself in the postage stamps near Saladin Ayyubi."
Saladin Ayyubi, who was born in 1137 or 1138 in Tikrit in Iraq today, was a part of a mercenary Kurdish family. He fought with his uncle, an important military leader against the Fatimids, a religious dynasty that ruled from 909 to 1171. But when his uncle died in 1169, Saladin Ayyubi took his place at the age of 31 or 32. According to the Enverclopedia Britannica, after Saladin Ayyubi's victory, he was commander of the Syrian troops in Egypt and appointed as the vizier of the Fâtimî halifesi.
In 1187, the army of Saladin Eyyubi conquered the holy city of Jerusalem. What they did led to the Third Crusade (1189-1192), which led to a clash between Saladin Ayyubi and his enemies, including King Richard I. Richard
However, after a mysterious fever and two weeks of illness, Saladin Eyyubi died in 1193 at the age of 55 or 56. His assistants tried to save him with bloodshed and enema, but he did not benefit.
Gluckman had a few caveats to diagnose this disease, but he could have sickened several diseases given his hand. According to Gluckman, Saladin Ayyubi did not die from plague or flower disease, because these diseases killed people quickly. Likewise, probably not tuberculosis, because written sources did not mention respiratory problems. It was probably not malaria either, because Gluckman found no evidence of a common symptom of the disease.
The symptoms, however, coincided with typhoid, a very common disease at that time in that area. Typhoid fever includes high fever, fatigue, stomachache, headache and loss of appetite.
This bacterial disease still exists today; According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 5,700 people in the US and 21.5 million people worldwide are known to have bacterial infections every year.
Today, antibiotics are given to people with typhoid fever, but they did not exist in the 12th century. Nevertheless, as antibiotic resistance increases among typhoid bacteria, future concerns continue to increase.
"Most infections have antibiotic resistance," Gluckman said. Tried and correct drugs are less effective these days. However, some antibiotics are still effective against typhoid. "
Live Science. May 5, 2018.