How Can Evolution Really Work?


The mind of biology as the species gradually changes over generations. How do we know this is real?

Evolution is one of the greatest theories of the scientific world. This theory basically explains how life, specifically the first simple living form, leads to the presently enormous variety of life forms, from bacteria to oak trees, from trees to blue whales.

Evolution is a fact for scientists.

We know that the world is roughly round, that gravity keeps us on it, that if we know how to meet bees in a nice picnic breaks nerves, life evolves.

In contrast to such a certainty, we also see that evolution from mediocrity is the subject of fierce debate in some countries, that it is described as "only a theory," or that it is not completely lied to and taken seriously.

How can confident biologists be so sure about this? What evidence? The answer to this question is rather short: there is so much evidence that it is difficult to know where to start. Here is a general summary of the evidence that life really evolved.

George Richmond's Charles Darwin

drawn in the 1830s,

First, it is useful to explain what Darwin's theory of evolution actually says. The general idea about this theory is that many species change over time, only the strongest ones survive, and whatever they are, a monkey-like creature develops into a human being.

In fact, Darwin's theory of evolution tells us that each new organism is visually perceived to be difficult, if not visually perceived by its parents who bring it to the world, and that these differences have sometimes hampered the time when the puppy has sometimes benefited. As organisms start to compete for food and mating, those with advantageous characteristics are more likely to be unable to breed if they have features that create barriers to them. Therefore, in a distributed population, advantageous features multiply and become extinct, and those who create obstacles disappear.

When enough time is given, these changes multiply and cause a new variation of new species and new organisms every time. Step by step, the worm becomes fish, the fish develops four legs, these four-legged animals end in feathers, eventually some begin to walk on two legs, they call themselves "humans" and discover the evolution.

Belief can be difficult. It is easy to notice that your parents did not look like a pimple, maybe your hair color is different, maybe you have a longer or cheerful structure. But, for countless generations, to accept the creation of a worm … That's much more difficult.

Many people do not agree with that. But, for a moment, leave all this sensuality on the side, and you start from your own place, where Darwin begins.

A domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) C: Ernie Janes / NPL

Darwin wants to look at what is known to the reader at the beginning of his book, The Origin of Species first published in 1859 . Untouched tropical islands or axes thousands of miles away require human beings to examine their own gardens, not uninhabited forests. In these gardens, you can easily see that the organisms transfer their own characteristics to their offspring and that the nature of the organism has changed over time with such transfers.

Darwin particularly emphasizes the process of cultivation (cultivation) and breeding. We know that farmers and bearmen, during generations, are deliberately raising more powerful or larger animals, as well as more yielding plants.

Cultivators work just as Darwin imagined how evolution works. Suppose you want to raise more spawning chickens. In this case, your first job is to find chickens that lay more eggs than the others. Then, you expect to get chicks out of the eggs you get from these chickens, so you'll be sure that the offspring will also lay eggs. If you want, these chicks will also lay more eggs.

If you repeat this process every time you finally get chickens that lay more than wild chickens. The female wild bird, the closest wild relatives of domestic chicken, gives up to 30 eggs per year, and this amount is 10 times higher in farm chickens.

A wild Indian bird (Gallus gallus murghi) in India C: Mary McDonald / NPL

These changes, which are passed through the floor, are called "degenerate".

A chick will look a lot like your parents in many ways: it's obviously a chicken, you do not have the chance to mix it with an ant eater, and it will probably look more like your chickens than your parents. But still, it will not be the same as medicine.

Steve Jones from University College London in England said, "That's the evolution. It's a mistake that improves. "

You may think that there are only a few changes that can be made with breeding, but in fact this is not an end. In his book, Darwin writes, "There is no indication that the change of a variable organism has stopped in agricultural conditions." "Our earliest agricultural crops, eg wheat, still produce new varieties, and our oldest pets are still capable of rapid improvement or change."

State of selective breeding: these creatures are derived from the lead. C: Petra Wegner / NPL

Darwin suggests that breeding is the evolution of human observation. It shows us the importance of small changes that are transferred from the floor to the floor. Jones says, "This is inevitable, it's certain to happen."

Nevertheless, there is quite a bit between the natural evolution of a new line from breeding more chickens. According to the theory of evolution, these chickens are ultimately created from dinosaurs, and ultimately from fish.

It takes a very long time for evolution to produce great results. To see the evidence, we need to look at the older records, the fossils.

A fossilized turtle ten million years old. C: John Cancalosi / NPL

We call fossil remains of survivors who have already passed away in the rocks. The rocks are preserved in the rock because the rocks form layers on top of each other, and the fossil record usually appears in a historical sequence: the oldest fossils are at the bottom

Glancing at the fossil record reveals that life has changed over time.

All of the oldest fossils are remnants of single-celled organisms, such as bacteria. More complicated creatures such as animals and plants are emerging much later. Among animal fossils, fish are seen earlier than amphibian creatures, birds or mammals. The fossils of our closest relatives are only the shallowest, ie the youngest.

Jones, "I think the most convincing evidence of evolution is the fossil record. This can be understood from the fossil record of one of every six pages of The Origin of Species . Darwin knew that evolution was an unquestionable fact. "

( Which species do not know to be classified as human )

By carefully examining the fossils, scientists succeeded in linking many of the extinct species to the species that are now living, such that some of the species that now exist have emerged from some extinct species

For example, researchers revealed the fossils of a 55 million-year-old carnivorous creature called Dormaalocyon in 2014, which is thought to be the common lion of today's lions, tigers and bears. Researchers think Dormaalocyon's teeth are like that.

You may still be not convinced. All of these animals may have similar teeth, but lions, tigers and Dormaalocons are different species. How do we know that a good one evolved into another?

Microraptor is a dinosaur almost like a bird. C: Natural History Museum

Because they are inadequate, the fossil record is only able to help once in a while. "If you look at most fossil recordings," says Jones, "you see that a form has been around for a long time and that there is another group of fossils that are quite different than before."

However, as the scientists described the remains more and more, there was a "transitional fossil" in abundance. These "missing links", crossing points between similar species.

We told the chickens to grow from dinosaurs. In 2000, a team led by Xing Xu from the Chinese Academy of Sciences found a small type of dinosaur called Microraptor, which even feathers like modern birds and thought to fly.

It is also possible to actually see that a new species has evolved.

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