Explaining How Spear Bits Are Placed in North America


The careful examination of the numerous grooved spearheads found in Alaska and western Canada proved that America's Glacial Migrations were much more complex than they thought.

Heather Smith and Ted Goebel both participated in the study of the First Americans Training Center, part of the Department of Anthropology at Texas A & M. Smith is now an assistant professor at the University of East New Mexico.

Smith and anthropology professor Goebel, who worked on this subject in his doctoral study, believe that findings can change how we see travel patterns and routes of people from 14,000 to 12,000 years ago, when people are placed in various parts of North America.

( Millions of people lived in Amazon before the Columbus )

Using these new methods of digital analysis for the first time in such a study, researchers discovered that, as previously thought, "the first settlers to travel north, not south of Alaska. "Says Goebel.

"In the Late Glacial, there were two possible ways to follow the migrations of the first Americans from the Bering Ground Bridge area to the temperate North America in the south, but now they only seem to have used the Pacific coast road. The inner Canadian route may not have been fully explored until after the millennium. "

"These grooved spear finds provide archaeological evidence supporting new genetic models that explain how people colonize the New Earth."

Grooved spearheads proving that they travel all over North America's first inhabitants. C: Heather Smith

Traditional interpretations of American colonization of America's colonization anticipated that the first inhabitants migrated from Siberia to Alaska and then followed the slowly opening ice-free corridor in western Canada to reach the Great Plains of the western United States.

However, new genetic studies on early Siberians, Alaska and Americans, and the discovery of new areas of daylight from the beginning of the ice-free corridor south of the Canadian ice layers, show that the first Americans are moving along the Pacific coast

( 13 000 Annual Footprints in Canada )

"It is important that these spearheads are related to technology and morphology, and that some of these traits change the shape of a relationship from the line of the ancestors. This shows that the people who carry these tools are also involved, "adds Smith.

"This shows that early people in Canada and Alaska come from the descendants of Clovis (the first settlers in North America) and use the same kind of weapons, especially for the bison or to collect food. It also shows that they come back to the middle of the continent and back to the North Pole. "

These works can be used to document migration patterns of prehistoric peoples.

"The spearheads prove that the peoples of America are much more complex than we believed, and that these early settlers went to many different directions, not just to the south. "

(19459018) Unknown American Native Group Discovered by 11,500 Year Old Baby )

"This is concrete evidence that there is a link between the Arctic and the people of the North Sea 12,000 years ago, this link may be genetic or social, but ultimately informs about the capabilities and adaptability of early cultures in North America. "

Science Daily. 2 April 2018.

Article : Smith, H. L., & Goebel, T. (2018). Origins and spread of fluted-point technology in the Canadian Ice-Free Corridor and eastern Beringia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201800312.


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Sustainable Living Enabled 25 Ecological Life Farm in Turkey [19459million]                              Wheat Association has established TaTuTa network within the scope of Turkey's ecological farms around, waiting for volunteers or visitors. TaTuTa, both from Turkey, as well as with volunteers and guests from abroad that brings together ecological agriculture farms in Turkey. Members of TaTuTa can visit these farms during the year or at certain times of the year, if their application is accepted. You can pick fruits in your chosen ecological farm, pick olives, harvest the soil, harvest grass, even carry stones, or pick tomatoes, yogurt, butter and cheese. You are personally experiencing how difficult it is to produce without polluting the products, air, water or land that you care about with the soil. If you choose to go voluntarily to the farms; food and accommodation in the farm. Most of the farms are carried out within the framework of a certain division of labor. Everyone is obliged to do it first if it comes to what is at hand. You are then directed to do what you are willing to learn. Being able to work together in harmony, helpfulness is every expectation. By studying and learning one half of the day, you can relax and observe the other half. In farms life is not defined within the framework of solid rules; what is your contribution to farming and what is the most practical way of doing a job without damaging nature? Of course you can also spend some time talking to farm owners and making a compromise for other activities such as resting, taking time for yourself, going to sea or visiting places around you. But if you do not want to go into a busy summer vacation, you can catch the chance of ecological production and witness of life by paying for food and accommodation. All in all, it's important that you meet these local heroes and include them in their lives for a while. In either case, you are guaranteed to return to your home to live and spread this philosophy of life and to become an eco-volunteer. Whether you are a volunteer or a guest; There are certain rules of living on farms. In order to preserve the ecological balance, we must sincerely give up certain "luxuries" that have occupied our daily life first. For example, from the use of industrially produced milk, cheese and yogurt, toilet paper, toothpaste, shampoo and hair creams, chemical cleaning materials used for dishwashing, washing and cleaning, pet bottles and nylon bags and much more that we do not actually need to live … those beautiful cows, lambs, sheep, goats, who have been overconsciously grown to be food for human beings and who have made a significant contribution to global warming … the oil resources we use to produce energy, nuclear power plants; we may aim to work for the proliferation of such applications by considering the need to utilize more sustainable sources such as the wind and the sun instead of the dams we use to generate electricity. Because it is not enough to be aware that the Earth is a sine qua non for being able to exist with human beings, it is necessary to try to apply it. Otherwise a sustainable life is not possible for people on this planet. Here we have compiled for you, based on the information they have given to TaTuTa, who try to maintain their presence on such a basis and who have been working for 6 days a week and for a maximum of 5-6 hours waiting for their volunteers to participate for more than a week … 45 km from Fethiye, 5 km from Saklıkent Canyon, the farm is practicing permaculture and natural farming principles. The farm's showers and toilets are two people each month, with volunteers accepted every month. There is internet but no TV. The meals are made from the vegetables grown here and are eaten together. Tired in the forest, sweaters, resting in the waterfall in Saklikent rest. Tloss Ancient City is 10 km away for those who like to walk. Olive, olive oil, various vegetables and fruits, spices and aromatic plants are produced in the farm is not accepted as a single cigarette. Ali Kışlak for the volunteers who are expected to come to at least three weeks: "They have wings." 2. Ali Koçak Farm – Tortum / Erzurum Ali Koçak, a former old wrestler who farmed over 10 acres, is also grinding grain on the water mill. In addition to apple pear, mulberry, cherry and walnut produced with ecological principles, vegetables such as beans, corn, onion, potatoes and pepper are also grown. At the same time Ali Koçak, a trout plant, is one of the frequented places of tourists. There is also a trout waterfall within the farm borders beside the Tortum Stream. Between March and October at least 12 days with the volunteers to be accepted on the farm is being eaten all together, other meals are eaten separately. Virgin Mary Main Church, Tortum Lake, Cold Cave, Engüzek Castle are among the places to be seen in walking around 3. Aralcak – Menemen / Izmir Halime and Cuneyt have been trying to get rid of being individuals in the system of 12 acres of land since 2013 and to live a peaceful life with nature. One turn of the land was organized as a food garden, and the rest was evaluated by planting 250 forests and fruit trees. They share this place with chickens, geese, cats, dogs and bears. They meet their electricity needs from the sun, their water needs from a waterfall called Su Uçan, which is 2 km away and poured from a height of 40 m. Right now, more than half of the food coming to the table is their own production. They are made up of a stone house, a living room with an open kitchen and a room. They welcome guests and volunteers in the living room or in the tent. Everyone will be accommodated there after the sack house projects that will be constructed from May 2018 are completed. They are willing to volunteer for up to 21 days, starting from March. 4. Ata'dan Çiftliği – Bismil / Diyarbakır Fatih Ata, who lives with her mother on a farm 45 km away from Diyarbakir, is happy to share her handicrafts. After living in the big city for 22 years, he thought that it would be the right thing to share the blessings of rural life in a reasonable and realistic way. Pepper, egg, melted cheese, tomato and pepper crust, aubergine and peppercorn, whole wheat flour, apple and grape circles, hazelnut, cheesecake, coriander, pilaf, spicy wheat, mint, basil, parsley, grape marmalade, pestil, grape juice, wine, such as their own home needs and gifts they can give gifts to friends. Those who go to the farm where the volunteers are accepted every month of the year can go to Hasankeyf, Mardin and Diyarbakır for a few hours to evaluate their spare time. 5. Bayrak Family Farm-Gümüşhacıköy / Amasya Retired teacher Ibrahim Bey and his wife Birsel Hanim are dealing with ecological fruit. They grow apples, quince, peaches, cherries, pears, cherries, plums and walnuts. The jams and marmalades made by Birsel Hanim are very tasty. Flag pair; They are welcoming their guests at home, eating together. They are extremely enthusiastic, warm-hearted, and hardworking people to convey everything. From March to the beginning of November, drinks are free on the farms where the sunsets can come; you can bring your child or your dog, you can take a bike in your free time. 6. Belentepe Farm-Osmangazi / Bursa On the south-west of Uludağ, Taner and Ece Aksel bought a 14-acre farm on the southern slope of the valley of Nilüfer, overlooking the Doğancı Baraj Lake in 1998. They first planted about 100 fruit trees and 500 root grape bars in this field. The farm designed with permaculture principles produces its own energy from the wind and the sun. The buildings are built with natural building techniques and materials. There's no chemistry anywhere on the farm. They produce natural fertilizers, natural herbal medicines and their own food. They produce grape molasses, juice, wine from their grapes except seasonal vegetables and fruits. They make their own cheese. At the same time, there are trainings and activities that describe sustainable life and permaculture. They accept volunteers from April to early December. 7. Bilecik Zeytinliboğaz Permaculture Farm-Gölpazarı / Bilecik A family farm with areas of activity such as livestock, fruit farming, vegetable farming, olive farming. Selçuk Şahin is an expert on permaculture. Maternity, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, pasta, sour baked bread, etc. His father, Eyüp, was formerly butchered, but now he is dealing with animal breeding. Special attention is paid to the activities of producing and exchanging seeds in the farm. The farm work that volunteers can go all year round is diversified in a wide range of different vaccination techniques ranging from soap making to poultry, sheep, cattle and olive picking. Children of volunteers in Zeytinliboğaz can also experience the limitlessness of their imagination world in an environment where their children have developed themselves, learned by playing games, and know nature. There is no internet in the farm. In the tent, at least two weeks are expected from the volunteers who will stay in the house or in the shared room. 8. Chevrel Traher Farm-Kurtköy / Yalova Chevrel living in Turkey for 20 years, after dealing with agriculture in Çanakkale have taken this 11 acre site is currently live. The production in the farm covers the whole vegetable needs of the family year round. Compost, permaculture, eco tourism and certified organic agriculture, farmers who want to come to the house wants to know the English and non-smokers prefer. The farm is surrounded by a forest of hornbeam, chestnut and linden trees. They can stay in a room with their own toilets in the home, from March until the time of their departure, and can enjoy forest walks, recreational trips, shopping in Yalova / Bursa, thermal spa / baths, Iznik trip in leisure time. 9. Codron Family Farm-Çakırlar / Antalya The farm is located on the slope of the Taurus Mountains, 10 km from Antalya city center and the sea. Çakırlar famous for its orange and pomegranate garden, which is one of Turkey's most popular rock climbing is also very close to the place Geyikbayırı. Modern spacious house, orange, apricot, peach and pomegranate orchards, vegetable gardens, chickens, ducks, farm consisting of a cluster where there are geese and rabbits living in Turkey for 10 years and that French teacher at the University of the Mediterranean Guillaume and of Charlotte. The couple who go to work 3-4 days a week can only run farm work in their spare time. They do not need volunteers in these months because they are holidaying in July, August and September. Those who want to come to the farm during the rest of the year can work in bakery, garden, tree and animal care. Volunteers traveling with the family can also visit the farm. The daily family life is shared with the volunteers, and food is made imecemically. All kinds of vegetables are grown in the garden of this farm which is three different settlements on the ancient Lycia walking path between Çukurbag Village of Kas, antique cities of Phellos and Antiphellos. While the yoga is being performed on the wooden upper terrace, the common living area where artistic work is done is in the front garden in the shade of the hanging gardens where you can cut off grapes. The centuries-old oak tree shade's arbor is used for laziness. Homeowners; Aydin and Ebru Cukurova and their sons Ata. Aydin is a painter and photographer, and his wife Ebru is an architect and trainer of both yoga. Both of them have traveled around the world and have finally made their home here. Ebru enjoys sharing the dishes she saves with her own cereals and spices, discovering new tastes and sharing her guests with their guests. They accept volunteers every month of the month except January. Let's say that volunteers who can stay in a shared room or bungalow do not eat meat and smoke. It is also important for them that your profile is complete when you apply. 11. Fatma Gülbin Çiftliği-Maçahel-Artvin Basic livelihoods are ecological queen farming. In the farm there are also hazelnuts and fruit and vegetable productions to their feet. There is a quadruple room in the house for guests or volunteers. Meals are eaten with the family. The family is of Georgian origin and is usually speaking Georgian in daily life. Fatma does not want the volunteers to visit the farm from May to October for less than 15 days. Because the interviewer and the worker say it takes time. I also mention that you worked eight hours a day, four days a week. Tekirova'ya 11, 12 km from Çıralı'da around the farm is covered with forests of the Deer. Hosts Selahattin Bey and Ayşe Hanim are farming in a small garden in accordance with their needs, adhering strictly to ecological principles. There are many native seeds in the farm with renewable energy, permaculture. The guest house, which is presented to guests, is a wooden structure outside the house. There is a shower, a toilet and hot water heated by solar energy. Volunteers can be accommodated in the tent or in the house of the hostess when the guest house is full. There is an ensuite shower-toilet for those staying in the tent. 13. Furma Ecological Life Farm-Karaburun / Izmir Tuna's father's farm Furma . The farm, which has a 180 degree sea view from Mytilini to the İzmir Gulf, is based on 12 acres of land 5 km from Karaburun and 500 m from the sea. The name of the farm comes from the name given by the hill-inspired locals, especially the olives, which can be fermented on the branch. In 2016, Çadan Tütüncü, who left the CFO position in multinational companies by saying "another life is possible", wants to have a self-sufficient and sustainable life and decided to create food forests for this. First of all to work at Yaylaköy, which is 20 km away from the present farm in 2011, came to the end every week and started to plant pomegranate trees. Later in 2013, Masanobu decided to go through multiple cultures by being influenced by Fukuoka. The soil is not being processed in the field. Organic trash is considered fertilizer. Wooden ash is being used instead of dishwashing and laundry detergent. The kitchen and the canyon waste waters are grown in a place separate from the vegetable garden. Chickens, bees and old ear cuts Dog Bobo and Cat Night Other residents of the place. In the farm there are seven rooms adjacent to the main building, each with its own bathroom and toilet. You wake up to the sun with the sunlight entering the shared room. Apart from January and February, volunteers are accepted every month of the year. Meals are prepared by preparing vegetable meals prepared with bostandan and they are eaten together with the volunteers counted as family. Mr. Bey is a strict collective life advocate. 14. Gağgı Farm – Bayındır / İzmir Veysi Özdemir's small settlement consisting of the dormitories; It is located in the western part of Mount Karlik in the Ovacık Nature Preservation Area. A little wild, so free, simple and simple life in a place with a rich plant diversity, abundant food and little human settlement created by the local ecological system in a 50 decare terrain. There are common baths, kitchens, workshops, etc. in the farms with fringed oak, chestnut cherry, pear, apple, walnut, vineyard, hawthorn and plum trees. There are eight dormitories in total, all of which are produced from local materials. The nearest village is 7 km away. Solar energy is used for electricity and hot water. There are eight hive bees and for the bees, the bee sculpting activities are being done, especially lavender. Not all telephone operators are in the farm area. No internet connection except for emergencies. Every month of the year in the farm is considered only volunteers. The farm built in Küçükköy with 13 acres of olive grove belongs to Efe Gezer. There are 125 aged olive trees on the farm and a mobile poultry house with a capacity of about 30 chickens, which is designed by Efe, and a farm where you can grow yourself. Among the primary jobs of the farm are olive, olive oil and soap production. Each farm is open to voluntary visits but is not accepted as a guest. The farm is 5 km away from Ayvalik and Sarimsaklı, which is famous for its beaches. The brick house, which is made of solar panels of electricity, which can be comfortably accommodated by five people, toilet and kitchen, meets the needs of Efe and its volunteers for housing. Organic farming and permaculture principles are used in the farms of approximately 15 acres in the mountains of Yalikavak, Upper Gökçebel Village, where olive, fig, pomegranate, grapefruit, mandarin, orange, apricot, banana, with fruits such as grapes, strawberries, golden strawberries; medicinal and aromatic plants such as island tea, thyme, calamus herb, balm, yellow centaur, rosemary, lavender, bay and seasonal vegetables are grown. There is also a poultry consisting of goose, duck, chicken, turkey and quail. Guests and volunteers are hosted by the owner of the farm, Meltem Kurtsan, who is hosted at the guest house, which has two rooms, a bathroom and two rooms, built with ecological building principles. Meals are prepared in a half-open communal kitchen with hand-held products from the horticultural products. For those volunteers who can visit the ranch up to the trotter, there is also a tent-space and shower / bath facility. The HerbaFarm Academy also organizes hands-on training seminars and workshops on topics such as nature, ecological agriculture, permaculture, pruning and vaccination, medical plants. Established on 3.5 acres of land on the road of the Seven Lakes National Park, this nature friendly tourism operation is not primarily an agriculture-focused farm. In traditional small gardens, they use agricultural methods according to season without using pesticides and fertilizers. A sample of the Tesiste nature-friendly architecture has nine pieces of stone and wood bungalow type rooms. You can witness wildlife with small walks or cycling trips. Coşkun Kocak, owner of the facility, which is open to volunteers from May until the day before. 18. Latif Yalçıner Farm-Kemaliye / Erzincan The host welcomes guests at three different locations. There are two rooms that can be visited by the volunteers from March to the beginning of the period between the Kemaliye and Apçağa villages in the first house where the fruit garden is located and the two rooms where the two families can easily accommodate in the second house opposite the first house. In Kemaliye, There are two rooms available for 10 people. Between March and November, about 100 different plants are collected and dried to produce spices called "zetirin". 19. Narköy Farm-Kandıra / Kocaeli About two hours away from Istanbul, a healing nest where you can throw yourself in your arms when you are overwhelmed. A training center, tourism facility and organic agricultural farm built on a land of more than 100 acres at a distance of 3 km from Kerpe … Nardane Kuşçu, the founder of Narköy, former primary school teacher; Nar Maderesi, who loved him very much … Narköy's gate is open to anyone who wants to spend time in nature and contribute to nature. It is a place where you can find many applications related to organic agriculture and ecological life together. In Narköy, which accept volunteers from April to December, there is an architecture that lives on the philosophy of "Think globally, act locally". The main uses of sustainable energy are built with light steel system with low carbon footprint. Each scale uses recycled and natural ingredients. An edible landscape concept consisting of vegetables and fruit is also an important part of this system. The Nar Training and Counseling Center provides education and consultancy services to the needs of institutional firms as well as providing services in areas such as NLP, "Anxiety and Stress Management" for individuals. In Narköy there are also workshops on a wide range of workshops ranging from cheese and bread making to being in different forms in nature. 20. Forestry Food Forest-Ayvacık / Çanakkale Burhan Eltan, which is in search of an independent system for energy, food and water, has been working on the Food Forest Project since 2010, 55 decares of food forest, 4 decares of greenhouses, 15 decares of vineyards and 4 decares It consists of olive trees. Now the garden and olive grove have begun to produce, work continues to form the food forest, while the vineyard project is waiting for it. To minimize the energy and labor resources used during the production of the food for the purpose of the project, and even to establish an independent food supply system. In addition to normal agricultural activities, volunteers in this project expect different experiences such as landforming, water storage systems, soil enrichment, energy efficient systems design, sapling cultivation, simple construction techniques, and eventually community building. The project has jobs and accommodation that can consistently host two volunteers. A living room for the volunteers was a two-person Mongolian dormitory, PEK for relaxation, garden kitchen and compost toilet for their own use. Lighting is provided by the 12v solar system. There is a wood stove to warm up in the yard. To collect bath and laundry, the solar collector supplies hot water. A special living space that makes ecological-tourism for "city wearies" who want to realize natural life thoughts in certain periods of their life. The farm, situated on the edge of the stream flowing through the middle of the valley surrounded by pine forests, expects long-term volunteers in every month of the year in stone, wood and mudbrick houses designed with ecological architecture approach in a quiet and peaceful environment. Non-smokers are preferred. Every kind of product grown as organic certified on 42 acres of land is prepared in local Mediterranean cuisine style. In local culture workshops, rugs can be woven, pottery made from soil, wooden carving. 22. Refikler Farm – Fethiye / Muğla

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